Five Whys : Why (why) (why) (why) (why)
A questioning technique used to probe the root causes of a problem. Popularized by Toyota in the 1970s, this strategy involves looking at any problem and asking: “Why?” and “What caused this problem?” The answer to the first “why” prompts another “why” and then another, and so on to help a design team focus on the underlying causes of a perceived issue or problem.
It’s not uncommon for a project to focus on the symptoms of a problem, rather than exposing the underlying causes. By asking why, and why, and why again, we gain insights that allows us to address real problems in a way that will make a real difference. The drawback of this technique is a focus on why, rather than how. Reduction can to oversimplify an understanding of the root causes of situation which the design team needs to account for.
Documenting and Assessing Learning in Informal and Media Rich Environments (2015) by Lemke et al.
All -- Read Introduction Section pp. 1 -13.
Individually -- Read one assigned short case study (below) and the associated domain section overview (after school learning, out-of-school learning, museum learning, computer/online learning).
Pay attention to the "valued learning" outcomes in each case study and the methods listed to assess learning. Each team should be looking for ideas and methods to assess learning outcomes for their OEF design concepts and be able to articulate in a slide the kinds of learning outcomes you'd expect your design concept to support, and potential research methods to measure them.
Rather than submitting a written reflection, plan to come to class and present a 1-2 minute summary of your case study. Describe to the class what were the valued outcomes for your case, how was the intended learning experience designed support those outcomes (briefly), and how did they propose to measure those outcomes (what methods could be used).
Afterschool programs & Community Centers // Read from pp 16 -18 .. .
Yvonne - 5th Dimension Case Study // starts page 19
Samiha - Computer Clubhouse // starts page 24
Digital Storytelling and Media Production Program // Read from pp 28 and ...
Leroy - The digital Underground Storytelling Project // starts pp 29
Cory - YouMedia // starts p 31
STEM Focused Community Based Programs // Read from pp 35 and ....
Christine - Colorado Hybrid School-Community STEM project // starts pp 38
Aliya -- Meta cognition in an Amusement Park Physics program // start pp 41
Musuem Based Programs and Projects // Read from 42 ...
Sadako - Give: Facilitating Group Inquiry in Science Museums // pp 43
Anya - TOBTOT: Assessing Museum Learning Talk over Time // pp 45
Hugh - Zydeco Tool // pg 49
Computer Based and Online Activities // Read from pp 52
Edward - Stealth Assessments // starts pp 53
Natalya -- Scratch Community Website // pp 58
Ethnographic Studies of Online and Gaming Communities // Read from 62
Anne - Whyville // starts pp 65
Additional Studies of Interest // Read from pp 68
Maddie -- Digital Zoo // starts 68
Jinny -- Quest to Learn // starts 75
Ricardo D. Stanton-Salazar (2011) A Social Capital Framework for the Study of Institutional Agents and Their Role in the Empowerment of Low-Status Students and Youth. Youth & Society, 43(3) 1066-1109.
This is a long reading, so please focus on the following sections:
pp: 1066 - 1079
Introduction & The Influence of Nonparental Adults on the Adolescent Development: A Review
pp: 1080 - 1083
The Concepts of Social Capital and Social Structure
Table 1. The roles of Institutional Agents as each are manifested through a specific set of actions.
pp: 1097 -1102
Appendix: Table A1. Forms of “Institutional Support” & Kinds of Institutional Agents
Please address in your reflections how the concept of "Institutional Agents" described in this reading can inform our design concepts for OEF. Think about the roles and participation structures described and how agent actions could be translated into hybrid online and face-2-face systems designs that support empowering forms of adult-youth interaction.
Nasir, N.S., Rosebery, A.S., Warren B., and Lee, C.D. (2014) Learning as a Cultural Process: Achieving Equity through Diversity. In R.K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences. (pp. 686-706). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Muratovski, G. (2016) Research for Designers: A Guide to Methods and Practice.
Chap 4: Qualitative Research
READ Sections 4.1, 4.3, 4.6-9
Chap 5: Quantitative Research
READ All sections
Based on the class poll, we do the following user study subject assignments for our user study next week. If you are not able to recruit subjects locally to work with you next week, please let me know!!
Project Team #1 -- HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS (2)
Samiha, Yvonne, Christine, Leroy
Project Team #2 -- HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS (2)
Cory, Aliya, Anya
Project Team #3 -- HIGH SCHOOL PARENTS (2)
Emily, Natalya, Edward
Project Team #4 -- HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS (2)
Hugh, Anne, Maddie, Jinny
Ching, D, Santo, R., Hoadley, C., Peppler, K, (2015) On-Ramps, Lane Changes, Detours and Destinations: Building Connected Learning Pathways in Hive NYC through Brokering Future Learning Opportunities. Hive Research Lab White Paper
Please read either the Connected Mentor framework or the Ching et al. paper on brokering for your reflection. For our design challenge and concept development, we are going to focus in the productive roles adults can play in supporting youth interest development and learning across settings, and how we can design for these roles.
**I would suggest you divvy up the readings, so half your team reads/reflects on one, and the others on the second reading.
Järvelä, Sanna & K. Ann Renninger. (2014) Designing for Learning: Interest, Motivation, and Engagement. Chap 33 in Sawyer, R. K. (Ed.). The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences. Cambridge University Press (pp. 668-685).
In addition to your summary of the paper, please reflect on how we can draw on these learning constructs of interest, motivation and engagement to design effective and appealing online learning systems.
REFLECTION DUE: 5 April, Tuesday I hour before class.
**To access a DIY.org course, I've create a class account.
username: LMM Students
Because we want to track the adult facing communications and system supported interactions. I've added the emails I recevied from DIY.org as a parent, when LMM Students signed up on the site.